Skip to main content

Probability and estimates

50/50 probability

Understanding and working with probability and estimates are core maths skills that your child will be taught at primary school, and probably at some stage they'll come home with homework to help reinforce learning in this area. 

Explore probability worksheets and estimates resources

Probability tells us how likely something is to happen and estimating means roughly calculating or judging a number or value.

If you child comes to you for help with a probability question or has to do some estimating practice, you'll need to understand how the subjects are taught in school nowadays and what the National Curriculum objectives are for your child's school year. Read up on key concepts like probability, chance and likelihood, how to use estimation to help with calculations (like how much an elephant weighs) and how probability can be described in words, or more accurately in terms of fractions and percentages.

Then explore our useful, teacher-created worksheets, all divided by school year, including how to understand the language of probability, estimate and measure time, probability word problems and using estimating to check calculations. 

Want to make it fun? Have a go at our Probability Piranhas game, Estimate the price game or Make a spinning top game. All these resources are PDF downloads that you can easily print out, and they include answers.


What is probability?
What are probability / chance / likelihood?
We explain what probability / chance / likelihood means, how children are taught about probability from Year 5 and the kinds of mathematical problems involving probability they might be asked to solve.
What is an estimate?
What is an estimate?
We explain how children are taught to make estimates to check whether their answers are correct and how this skill is applied to more difficult calculations as your child advances through primary school.
Little girl doing sums
Teachers' tricks for KS1 maths
Some young children just can’t get their head around adding numbers together. Education writer Phoebe Doyle explains some helpful strategies that are most often used in primary teaching today.


Explaining probability worksheet
Explaining probability
Probability is when we make judgements on whether something is likely to happen or not. Probability can be described in words, or more accurately in terms of fractions and percentages. Where would you put these statements on the probability line?
Testing probability
Testing probability
Millie is holding a bag of sweets. Imagine Millie picks a sweet out of the bag without looking. Read the following statements and tick which ones are correct.
Estimating practice worksheet
Estimating practice
At the school fair the children had to estimate how many sweets were in the jar. Look at their estimates and see who got it right. Now draw some sweets in this jar and ask an adult to make an estimate.
See all Probability and estimates worksheets here ►

Search all Probability and estimates worksheets by year 
Also see:

Maths Homework Helper

Created by author, deputy headteacher and parent Matt Revill, Maths Homework Helper brings together everything you need to get to grips with this vital subject and life skill. With this eBook, you can support your child's maths learning effectively at home – from Reception Year, right through to the end of Year 6.

With Matt's help, you’ll discover how to tackle all the different topics your child will encounter – from addition and subtraction, to ratios and percentages – and get familiar with all the latest methods used in schools, including:

  • Chunking
  • The grid method
  • Number bonds
  • Carroll diagrams
  • Number lines
  • And more!

Whatever age or stage your child is at, it's reassuring to know that you have all the essential areas of maths under your belt, so you're ready to go if, and when, they call on you for help.