Age-related expectations: KS2
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As well as being told your child’s score, you’ll be told whether they are meeting age-related expectations. This equates to a score of 100 or above on each paper.
In 2019, 65% of pupils met age-related expectations in all three SATs subjects. Alongside SATs, teachers assess whether children are working at age-related expectations in writing and science.
Here’s what your child needs to know or be able to do in order to meet Year 6 age-related expectations.
KS2 reading age-related expectations
Because reading is assessed by KS2 SATs, with a score of 100 being the expected standard, the Department for Education (DfE) doesn’t publish age-related expectation objectives.
However, the English reading curriculum says that Year 6 children should be able to:
- Read and discuss a wide range of fiction, poetry and plays, non-fiction and reference books.
- Read books that are structured in different ways, and read for a range of purposes.
- Increase their familiarity with a wide range of books, including myths, legends and traditional stories, modern fiction, fiction from our literary heritage, and books from other cultures and traditions.
- Recommend books that they have read to their peers, giving reasons for their choices.
- Identify and discuss themes and conventions across a wide range of writing.
- Make comparisons within and between books.
- Learn a range of poetry by heart.
- Prepare poems and plays to read aloud and to perform.
- Understand what they read by checking that the book makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and exploring the meaning of words in context.
- Ask questions to improve their understanding.
- Draw inferences, for example about characters’ feelings, thoughts and motives.
- Predict what might happen from details stated and implied.
- Summarise the main ideas drawn from more than one paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas.
- Identify how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning .
- Discuss and evaluate how authors use language.
- Distinguish between statements of fact and opinion.
- Retrieve, record and present information from non-fiction.
- Participate in discussions about books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves.
- Explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read, including through presentations and debates.
- Provide reasoned justifications for their views.
English KS2 writing (teacher assessed) age-related expectations
To meet age-related expectations, pupils must:
- Write effectively for a range of purposes and audiences, selecting language that shows good awareness of the reader (e.g. the use of the first person in a diary).
- In narratives, describe settings, characters and atmosphere.
- Integrate dialogue to convey character and advance the action.
- Select vocabulary and grammatical structures that reflect what the writing requires.
- Use a range of devices to build cohesion (e.g. conjunctions, adverbials of time and place, pronouns, synonyms).
- Use verb tenses consistently and correctly throughout their writing.
- Use the range of punctuation taught in Key Stage 2 mostly correctly.
- Spell correctly most words from the Year 5 and 6 spelling list (the DfE produces a spelling list: see p23).
- Use a dictionary to check the spelling of uncommon or more ambitious vocabulary.
- Maintain legibility in joined handwriting when writing at speed.
KS2 maths age-related expectations
As with reading, to meet age-related expectations at the end of Year 6, pupils must score 100 or more in their SATs.
The curriculum says they must be taught:
Number and place value
- Read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10,000,000 and determine the value of each digit.
- Round any whole number accurately.
- Use negative numbers in context, and calculate intervals across zero.
Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
- Solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above.
- Use common factors to simplify fractions; use common multiples to express fractions in the same denomination.
- Compare and order fractions.
- Add and subtract fractions with different denominators and mixed numbers, using the concept of equivalent fractions.
- Multiply simple pairs of proper fractions.
- Divide proper fractions by whole numbers.
- Associate a fraction with division and calculate decimal fraction equivalents for a simple fraction.
- Identify the value of each digit in numbers given to three decimal places, and multiply and divide numbers by 10, 100 and 1000.
- Solve problems involving the relative sizes of two quantities where missing values can be found by using integer multiplication and division facts.
- Solve problems involving the calculation of percentages.
- Solve problems involving similar shapes where the scale factor is known or can be found.
- Solve problems involving unequal sharing and grouping using knowledge of fractions and multiples.
- Use simple formulae.
- Generate and describe linear number sequences.
- Express missing number problems algebraically.
- Find pairs of numbers that satisfy an equation with two unknowns.
- Enumerate possibilities of combinations of two variables.
- Solve problems involving the calculation and conversion of units of measure, up to three decimal places.
- Use, read, write and convert between standard units, converting measurements of length, mass, volume and time from a smaller unit of measure to a larger unit, and vice versa.
- Convert between miles and kilometres.
- Recognise that shapes with the same areas can have different perimeters and vice versa.
- Recognise when it is possible to use formulae for area and volume of shapes.
- Calculate the area of parallelograms and triangles.
- Calculate, estimate and compare volume of cubes and cuboids using standard units, including cubic centimetres and cubic metres.
- Draw 2D shapes using given dimensions and angles.
- Recognise, describe and build simple 3D shapes, including making nets.
- Compare and classify geometric shapes based on their properties and sizes and find unknown angles in any triangles, quadrilaterals, and regular polygons.
- Illustrate and name parts of circles, including radius, diameter and circumference and know that the diameter is twice the radius.
- Recognise angles where they meet at a point, are on a straight line, or are vertically opposite, and find missing angles.
- Describe positions on the full coordinate grid (all four quadrants).
- Draw and translate simple shapes on the coordinate plane, and reflect them in the axes.
KS2 science (teacher assessed) age-related expectations
To meet age-related expectations, pupils must be able to:
- Name and describe the functions of the main parts of the digestive, musculoskeletal and circulatory systems.
- Describe and compare different reproductive processes and life cycles in animals.
- Describe the effects of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on how the body functions.
- Name, locate and describe the functions of the main parts of plants, including those involved in reproduction and transporting water and nutrients.
- Use the observable features of plants, animals and microorganisms to group, classify and identify them into broad groups.
- Construct and interpret food chains.
- Describe the requirements of plants for life and growth, and explain how environmental changes may have an impact on living things.
- Use the basic ideas of inheritance, variation and adaptation to describe how living things have changed over time and evolved, and provide evidence for evolution.
- Group and identify materials according to their properties, and justify the use of different everyday materials based on their properties.
- Describe the characteristics of different states of matter and group materials on this basis.
- Describe how materials change state at different temperatures, using this to explain everyday phenomena, including the water cycle.
- Identify and describe what happens when dissolving occurs in everyday situations; and describe how to separate mixtures and solutions into their components.
- Identify, with reasons, whether changes in materials are reversible or not.
- Understand that light travels in straight lines and enters our eyes to explain how we see objects, and the formation, shape and size of shadows.
- Understand that sounds are associated with vibrations, and that they require a medium to travel through, to explain how sounds are made and heard.
- Describe the relationship between pitch and volume of a sound.
- Describe the effects of simple forces such as resistance, friction and gravity.
- Identify simple mechanisms, including levers, gears and pulleys, that increase the effect of a force.
- Use simple apparatus to construct and control a series circuit, describe how the circuit may be affected when changes are made, and use recognised symbols to represent simple circuit diagrams.
- Describe the shapes and relative movements of the sun, moon, Earth and other planets in the solar system.
- Describe and evaluate their own and others’ scientific ideas, using evidence from a range of sources.
- Ask questions about the scientific phenomena that they are studying, and select the most appropriate ways to answer these questions (e.g. observing changes over time).
- Use a range of scientific equipment to take accurate measurements or readings.
- Record data and results using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs.
- Draw conclusions, explain and evaluate their methods and findings.
- Raise further questions that could be investigated, based on their data and observations.